In 1739 the great evangelist George Whitefield (1714-1770) began preaching. So did games like tennis and shuttlecock. The upper skirt was gathered up to reveal an underskirt. It allowed a system of communications that shaped the business world. Over it they wore long dresses. In the early 17th century furniture was plain and heavy. These included games such as chess, draughts, and backgammon. Among the poor cruel 'sports' like cock fighting and bull and bear baiting were popular. However, during the 17th-century glass became cheaper and by the late 17th century even the poor had glass windows. Furthermore until the 18th century most livestock was slaughtered at the beginning of winter because farmers could not grow enough food to feed their animals through the winter months. The early 18th century was noted for its lack of religious enthusiasm and the churches in England lacked vigor. However, in the mid-18th century, things began to change. At the top of 17th century society were the nobility. Limited medical knowledge meant many people were desperate for a cure. John Wesley traveled all over the country, often preaching in open spaces. Gradually this new method of understanding the world took over. The overseers were meant to provide work for the able-bodied poor. In the 17th century traditional pastimes such as cards and bowls continued. In them girls were taught subjects like writing, music and needlework. As England grew more commercial so lending money became more important. However, in the mid-18th century, things began to change. Smoking clay pipes was popular in the 18th century. Christopher Sholes was unable to raise the money, successfully organize a factory, or find the skilled labor to produce his typewriter invention cheaply and in volume. In science Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) discovered oxygen. Craftsmen and laborers lived in 2 or 3 rooms. It could be very profitable as import duties on goods like rum and tobacco were very high. The goldsmiths realized that not all of their customers would withdraw their gold at the same time. Each time it killed a significant part of the population but each time London recovered. In 1700 many people believed that scrofula (a form of tubercular infection) could be healed by a monarch's touch. By the late 17th century the new scientific approach had triumphed everywhere in Europe. In 1784 Cort invented the puddling process. The typewriter has numerous small precision parts. Pieces of furniture were coated with lacquer in bright colors. (He was known as 'Capability' Brown from his habit of looking at land and saying it had 'great capabilities'). During the century new foods were introduced into England (for the rich) such as bananas and pineapples. Many people enjoyed cruel 'sports' like cockfighting and bull baiting. The leading architect of the 18th century was Robert Adam (1728-1792). Then, in 1721 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu learned inoculation from the Turks. (Again they believed that bathing in seawater was good for your health). In the late 17th century furniture for the wealthy became more comfortable and much more finely decorated. Unfortunately, the ancient Greek philosophers were held in very high esteem and for centuries hardly anyone questioned their theories. Queen Anne (1702-1714) was the last British monarch to touch for scrofula. The musket ball was placed in a container, which held the right amount of gunpowder to fire it. In the grammar schools conditions were hard. However all the improvements in furniture did not apply to the poor. Home | Artifacts & Documents | Writing Assignments | Teaching Guide | Essays. Afterwards people began to deposit money with goldsmiths instead. Below them, about 30% of the population could afford to eat meat between 2 and 6 times a week. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) discovered hydrogen. Therefore they were protected by men with pikes (a weapon like a long spear). Middle glass girls might be taught by their mothers. In the early 17th century a piped water supply was created. Merchants and professional men met there to read newspapers and talk shop. Invention, Innovation and Obsolescence. By then scientists were carrying out careful observations and experiments to find out how the world works. But by the 1980s, the typewriter had begun to disappear, overcome at first by the word processor and then by the personal computer, which could do everything the typewriter could do and much more. In 1870, there were very few women office workers. Looking at Artifacts, Thinking About History, Start The first daily newspaper in England was printed in 1702. As a result of these new inventions, cotton production boomed. However the poor had none of these things. Finally, in 1785 Edmund Cartwright invented a loom that could be powered by a steam engine. Until then men had to beat red hot iron with hammers to remove impurities. The adoption of the typewriter, at just the same time that women began to work in offices, reflected changes in women's roles, new ideas about the organization of work, and the rapidly growing corporations of the day. Many more canals were dug in the late 18th century and the early 19th century. The population of Liverpool was about 77,000 in 1800. For them, meat was a luxury. The population of London was almost 1 million. | Telling Many Stories. They also wore stockings and boots. However, in 1759 the Duke of Bridgewater decided to build a canal to bring coal from his estate at Worsley to Manchester. (Scrofula was called the kings evil). In 1707 the Act of Union was passed. In the early 17th century the architect Inigo Jones introduced the classical style of architecture (based on ancient Greek and Roman styles). Plague broke out in London in 1603, 1636 and in 1665. The first women's magazine was The Ladies Mercury in 1693. In turn, the typewriter brought about and helped to accelerate social change, opening up new jobs for women in the office. It allowed a system of communications that shaped the business world. As a result, many of their ideas about the natural world were wrong. The Royal Academy of Arts was founded in 1768. Changes in Business and the Workplace. They were in two sections and they slid up and down vertically to open and shut. develop a mild case of the disease and be immune in the future. In the late 17th-century furniture for the rich was often made of walnut or (from the 1680s) mahogany. However, during the century this class became less and less numerous.