salem witch trials impact american legal system

During the … None of them, however, justify why over 200 people were accused of practicing witchcraft and 20 more were executed. Unfortunately the work did not get released until after the trials had already ended. [116], Rebecca Nurse's descendants erected an obelisk-shaped granite memorial in her memory in 1885 on the grounds of the Nurse Homestead in Danvers, with an inscription from John Greenleaf Whittier. The judge should appoint as an advocate for the accused “an upright person who is not suspected of being fussy about legal niceties” as opposed to appointing “a litigious, evil-spirited person who could easily be corrupted by money” (p. 530). On September 19, 1692, Giles Corey refused to plead at arraignment, and was killed by peine forte et dure, a form of torture in which the subject is pressed beneath an increasingly heavy load of stones, in an attempt to make him enter a plea.

More arrests followed: Sarah Wildes, William Hobbs (husband of Deliverance and father of Abigail), Nehemiah Abbott Jr., Mary Eastey (sister of Cloyce and Nurse), Edward Bishop, Jr. and his wife Sarah Bishop, and Mary English. Only fourteen other women and two men had been executed in Massachusetts and Connecticut during the 17th century. As several of those accused later recounted, we were blindfolded, and our hands were laid upon the afflicted persons, they being in their fits and falling into their fits at our coming into their presence, as they said. [40], The first three people accused and arrested for allegedly afflicting Betty Parris, Abigail Williams, 12-year-old Ann Putnam, Jr., and Elizabeth Hubbard,[14] were Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba—with Tituba being the first. (Eds.). [73][74], Cotton Mather's The Wonders of the Invisible World was written with the purpose to show how careful the court was in managing the trials. [98] Writing anonymously to conceal his dissent, he published a short tract entitled "Some Miscellany Observations On our present Debates respecting Witchcrafts, in a Dialogue Between S. & B." The infamous Salem witch trials were a series of prosecutions for witchcraft starting in 1692 in Salem Village, Massachusetts. Crime and Punishment in Early Massachusetts, 1620-1692  A Documentary History (Beacon Press, KB4537.P39C8 1966 LawAnxN). 336–337. Bishop was executed by hanging on June 10, 1692. [61] If the complaint was deemed credible, the magistrates had the person arrested[62] and brought in for a public examination—essentially an interrogation where the magistrates pressed the accused to confess. Elizabeth Proctor was given a temporary stay of execution because she was pregnant. [117], Not all the condemned had been exonerated in the early 18th century.

See the warrants for their arrests at the University of Virginia archives: 7 trans. 18.

"[56], Dorcas Hoar was given a temporary reprieve, with the support of several ministers, to make a confession of being a witch. [29], These immigrants, who were mostly constituted of families, established several of the earliest colonies in New England, of which the Massachusetts Bay Colony was the largest and most economically important. The resulting publication, entitled A Brief and True Narrative of Some Remarkable Passages Relating to Sundry Persons Afflicted by Witchcraft, at Salem Village: Which happened from the Nineteenth of March, to the Fifth of April 1692, was published while the trials were ongoing and relates evidence meant to convict the accused. ___________________________, eds. This then spread to her friends and they began showing the same behavior.

Massachusetts Archives, Vol. (Reprinting the letter years later in Magnalia, Cotton Mather left out these "two first and the last" sections.)

Many historians consider the lasting effects of the trials to have been highly influential in subsequent United States history. It was the deadliest witch hunt in the history of colonial North America. Records of the Salem Witch-Hunt (Cambridge University Press, XXKFM2478.8.W5R43 2009)(includes Richard B. Trask, “Legal Procedures Used During the Salem Witch Trials and a Brief History of the Published Versions of the Records” at pages 44-63). National Archives (Great Britain), CO5/785, pp. “Judgment of a Witch.” The Fugger News-Letters 259-262 (The Bodley Head, Ltd., 1924).

[94], Cotton Mather's father, Increase Mather, completed Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits at the same time as Wonders and published it in November 1692. The Hammer of Witches:  A Complete Translation of the, Witchcraft and the Law:  A Selected Bibliography of Recent Publications, Meeting patron needs with autumn on-site Library services, Building ideas: Students help reimagine Core texts in renowned alum Jenny Holzer’s innovative artwork, Trials (Witchcraft) — Massachusetts — Salem, Witchcraft — Massachusetts — Salem — History — 17th century. American Association of Law Library, Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, July 23, 2012 (AALL2go – password needed to access .mp3 and program handout). 9, 1718–1718, Chap. The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. As soon as he was turned off [hanged], Mr. Cotton Mather, being mounted upon a Horse, addressed himself to the People, partly to declare that he [Mr. Burroughs] was no ordained Minister, partly to possess the People of his guilt, saying that the devil often had been transformed into the Angel of Light. [76] Robert Calef, a strong critic of Cotton Mather, stated in his own book titled More Wonders of the Invisible World that by confessing, an accused would not be brought to trial, such as in the cases of Tituba and Dorcas Good. Grand juries were held for many of those remaining in jail. [27], Though the prior ministers' fates and the level of contention in Salem Village were valid reasons for caution in accepting the position, Rev. Deut.

Immediately following this execution, the court adjourned for 20 days (until June 30) while it sought advice from New England's most influential ministers "upon the state of things as they then stood.

[26] This conflicted with a 1681 village resolution which stated that "it shall not be lawful for the inhabitants of this village to convey the houses or lands or any other concerns belonging to the Ministry to any particular persons or person: not for any cause by vote or other ways". Salem Witchcraft and Cotton Mather. The Specter of Salem:  Remembering the Witch Trials in Nineteenth-Century America (University of Chicago Press, BF1576.A33 2008). Familes were destroyed. She was accused of witchcraft because the Puritans believed that Osborne had her own self-interests in mind following her remarriage to an indentured servant.

Colonial leaders were elected by the freemen of the colony, those individuals who had had their religious experiences formally examined and had been admitted to one of the colony's Puritan congregations. The Salem Witchcraft Trials:  A Legal History (University Press of Kansas, XXKFM2478.8.W5H645 1997)(Landmark Law Cases & American Society).

The accusers said the black Man [Devil] stood and dictated to him. The talk of witchcraft then took over Salem Village like a plague, “Witch Hunt” is a term often thrown around whenever a group of people is being sought out and punished for their actions, regardless of whether they are actually guilty or not. Modern-day witch-hunts are reported to still be happening in Africa, the Pacific, Latin America, even in the U.S. and Europe. News of Mather's charter and the appointment of Phips as the new governor had reached Boston by late January,[20] and a copy of the new charter reached Boston on February 8, 1692.

Religion is the primary cause of most wars in countries across the world. 126.

Joseph Green and the members of the church voted on February 14, 1703, after nearly two months of consideration, to reverse the excommunication of Martha Corey. They dismissed charges against all but five people. In the following centuries, the descendants of those unjustly accused and condemned have sought to honor their memories. In August, grand juries indicted George Burroughs, Mary Eastey, Martha Corey and George Jacobs, Sr.. Trial juries convicted Martha Carrier, George Jacobs, Sr., George Burroughs, John Willard, Elizabeth Proctor, and John Proctor. These trials are still today widely thought of as being important, because they showed an excellent Mary Bradbury (aged 77) managed to escape with the help of family and friends. After witnessing the trials first-hand and gathering accounts, these ministers presented various opinions about the trial starting in 1692.

"Malleus Maleficarum Part I. Exodus states:  “Thou shall not suffer a witch to live.” Leviticus prescribes the punishment. Martha Corey had expressed skepticism about the credibility of the girls' accusations and thus drawn attention. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRobinson2001 (. [48], Also included were Elizabeth Colson, Elizabeth Hart, Thomas Farrar, Sr., Roger Toothaker, Sarah Proctor (daughter of John and Elizabeth Proctor), Sarah Bassett (sister-in-law of Elizabeth Proctor), Susannah Roots, Mary DeRich (another sister-in-law of Elizabeth Proctor), Sarah Pease, Elizabeth Cary, Martha Carrier, Elizabeth Fosdick, Wilmot Redd, Sarah Rice, Elizabeth Howe, Capt. Glanvill, Joseph. If the accused witch touched the victim while the victim was having a fit, and the fit stopped, observers believed that meant the accused was the person who had afflicted the victim. Most people believe that hundreds of people were executed during the Salem witch trials, which is often a very common thought but in actuality only twenty people (mostly women) were executed. Hutchinson, Thomas.

[87] Other slightly later descriptions of her, by Gov. [70] A contemporary critic of the trials, Robert Calef, wrote, "Giles Corey pleaded not Guilty to his Indictment, but would not put himself upon Tryal by the Jury (they having cleared none upon Tryal) and knowing there would be the same Witnesses against him, rather chose to undergo what Death they would put him to. [31], An overwhelming majority of people accused and convicted of witchcraft were women (about 78%). The afflicted state of our poor neighbours, that are now suffering by molestations from the invisible world, we apprehend so deplorable, that we think their condition calls for the utmost help of all persons in their several capacities. When he was upon the Ladder, he made a speech for the clearing of his Innocency, with such Solemn and Serious Expressions as were to the Admiration of all present; his Prayer (which he concluded by repeating the Lord's Prayer) [as witches were not supposed to be able to recite] was so well worded, and uttered with such composedness as such fervency of spirit, as was very Affecting, and drew Tears from many, so that if seemed to some that the spectators would hinder the execution. The most infamous application of the belief in effluvia was the touch test used in Andover during preliminary examinations in September 1692. Benjamin Ray’s, “Salem witch trials” grants primary source historical documents to support the allegations of the witch trials in that period. 27. The authors were listed as "P. E. and J. Montague Summer.

Over 150 people were imprisoned for witchcraft using OUR judicial system.

The men were both local magistrates and also members of the Governor's Council. The first two ministers, James Bayley (1673–79) and George Burroughs (1680–83), stayed only a few years each, departing after the congregation failed to pay their full rate. One example of this is Abigail Faulkner, who was accused in 1692. [79] (The court later ruled that spectral evidence was inadmissible, which caused a dramatic reduction in the rate of convictions and may have hastened the end of the trials.)

Karlsen, Carol F. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman:  Witchcraft in Colonial New England (Norton, BF1576.K370 1987). "[88] In that day, that typically meant a Native American from the Carolinas/Georgia/Florida.

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